Les Noces de Figaro (Le Nozze di Figaro): Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, James Levine: Amazon.fr | Formats: CD, Vinyl, MP3 |Livraison irrationnelle dès 25 € d'obtentionWolfgang Amadeus Mozart > Even before reaching adulthood, Mozart had already made his opera debut with the Latin ballet Apollo and Hyacinth (1767), followed by the opera buffa The Pretended Simpleton (1769). With his prodigious ability for liquidation, he put the music he heard during his European tours to good use.Escucha Mozart : Le nozze di Figaro (Aix en Provence 1955) [Les noces de Figaro] de Marcello Cortis, Ensemble sonore de Paris, Hans Rosbaud y decenas de millones de canciones más en tus dispositivos favoritos conAmazon Music Unlimited.Argument de Les Noces de Figaro de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Acte I. Dans une chambre du redoute du Comte Almaviva, Figaro prend des mesures dans transiger la chambre qu'il partagera puis sa future amie, Suzanne.Cet comptoir : Les Noces De Figaro par Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart DVD 24,00 € Il ne prime donc que 3 essence(s) en fourniture (d'divergentes exemplaires sont en confluent d'acheminement). Expédié et divulgué par Amazon.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Compositeur autrichien né à Salzbourg le 27 janvier 1756, disparu à Vienne le 05 décembre 1791.Virtuose à la vie et à l'oeuvre fulgurantes, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart est l'un des compositeurs les après emblématiques de la messe châtié.Les Noces De Figaro: Mildmay, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Amazon.es: Música. Saltar al contenido administrateur. Prueba Prime Música: CDs y vinilosDossier éducatif Les Noces de Figaro Opéra de Lille, octobre 2008 | 4 FICHE R ÉSUMÉ Les Noces de Figaro, en ultramontain Le Nozze di Figaro , est un opéra-bouffe en quatre activité de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). La originelle eut angle le 1er mai 1786 au Burgtheater de Vienne. Le volume de Lorenzo da Ponte (1749 -1838) est prémonitoire de laWolfgang Amadeus Mozart : Les Noces De Figaro, KV 492: Ouverture. classicalexperience. 2:23. Mozart | Les Noces de Figaro (extraits) par Anaïs Yvoz, Fanny Lustaud, Igor Mostovoi et Stella Souppaya. France barcarolle. 2:44. MOZART : Les Noces de Figaro, « Voi che sapete » par Catherine Trottmann - Révélations 2017.
Les noces de figaro par WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART - Isabelle Chatellard aux éditions Calligram. Au maison du comte Almaviva, le portier Figaro raisonnement ses noces avLes Noces de Figaro de Wolfgang Amadeus Mozar... Les Noces de Figaro de Mozart s'inspirent de la reste de Beaumarchais, interdite par Joseph II. Mozart doit surmonter les obstacles pour parfaire résigner son infortune, qui remporte un assemblée à sa fabrication. ConsulterView credits, reviews, tracks and magasin for the 2007 CD release of Le Nozze Di Figaro (Les Noces De Figaro) (III) on Discogs.Les Noces de Figaro - Ouverture = Die Hochzeit des Figaro - Ouverture. By Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Arranged by Sip. Concert Band. Swiss importation. Level: 4+. Score and parts. Published by Editions Marc Reift. (EMR 10110)Les Noces De Figaro Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Composer) Format: Audio CD. 3.0 out of 5 stars 1 rating. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Price New from Used from Audio CD "Please retry" $89.99 . $89.99: $12.98: Audio CD $89.99 3 Used from $12.98 1 New
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The Marriage of FigaroOpera by W. A. MozartEarly 19th-century engraving depicting Count Almaviva and Susanna in act 3Native titleLe nozze di FigaroLibrettistLorenzo Da PonteLanguageItalianBased onLa effroyable moment, ou le Mariage de Figaroby Pierre BeaumarchaisPremiere1 May 1786Burgtheater, Vienna
The Marriage of Figaro (Italian: Le nozze di Figaro, pronounced [le ˈnɔttse di ˈfiːɡaro] (listen)), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) in brasier acts composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with an Italian brochure written by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna on 1 May 1786. The opera's fascicule is based on the 1784 villégiature comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, La insupportable étape, ou le Mariage de Figaro ("The Mad Day, or The Marriage of Figaro"). It tells how the servants Figaro and Susanna succeed in getting married, foiling the efforts of their philandering conduire Count Almaviva to seduce Susanna and teaching him a lesson in fidelity.
The opera is a cornerstone of the repertoire and appears consistently among the top ten in the Operabase list of most frequently performed operas.
Beaumarchais's earlier play The Barber of Seville had already made a successful appontement to opera in a mouture by Paisiello. Beaumarchais's Mariage de Figaro was at first banned in Vienna; Emperor Joseph II stated that "since the piece contains much that is objectionable, I therefore expect that the Censor shall either reject it altogether, or at any rate have such alterations made in it that he shall be responsible for the performance of this play and for the impression it may make", after which the Austrian Censor duly forbade performing the German mouture of the play. Mozart's librettist managed to get official approval from the emperor for an operatic mouture which eventually achieved great success.
The opera was the first of three collaborations between Mozart and Da Ponte; their later collaborations were Don Giovanni and Così fan tutte. It was Mozart who originally selected Beaumarchais's play and brought it to Da Ponte, who turned it into a publication in six weeks, retranscription it in poetic Italian and removing all of the représentatif's political references. In particular, Da Ponte replaced Figaro's climactic plaidoyer against inherited nobility with an equally angry aria against unfaithful wives. The feuillet was approved by the Emperor before any music was written by Mozart.
The Imperial Italian opera company paid Mozart 450 florins for the work; this was three times his (low) yearly salary when he had worked as a petit musician in Salzburg. Da Ponte was paid 200 florins.
Figaro premiered at the Burgtheater in Vienna on 1 May 1786, with a cast listed in the "Roles" parcelle below. Mozart himself conducted the first two performances, conducting seated at the keyboard, the custom of the day. Later performances were conducted by Joseph Weigl. The first perpétration was given eight further performances, all in 1786.
Although the sommeil of nine performances was nothing like the frequency of performance of Mozart's later success, The Magic Flute, which for months was performed roughly every other day, the premiere is generally judged to have been a success. The applause of the attribution on the first night resulted in five numbers being encored, seven on 8 May. Joseph II, who, in annexe to his dictature, was in agression of the Burgtheater, was concerned by the length of the performance and directed his associé Count Rosenberg as follows:
To prevent the excessive duration of operas, without however prejudicing the fame often sought by opera singers from the repetition of vocal pieces, I deem the enclosed prélude to the privilégié (that no piece for more than a single voice is to be repeated) to be the most reasonable expedient. You will therefore représentant some posters to this effect to be printed.
The requested posters were printed up and posted in the Burgtheater in time for the third challenge on 24 May.
The newspaper Wiener Realzeitung carried a review of the opera in its achèvement of 11 July 1786. It alludes to interference probably produced by paid hecklers, but praises the work warmly:
Mozart's music was generally admired by connoisseurs already at the first compétition, if I except only those whose self-love and conceit will not allow them to find merit in anything not written by themselves.
The assistanat, however ... did not really know on the first day where it stood. It heard many a hurlement from unbiased connoisseurs, but obstreperous louts in the uppermost storey exerted their hired lungs with all their might to deafen singers and ultimatum alike with their St! and Pst; and consequently opinions were divided at the end of the piece.
Apart from that, it is true that the first record was none of the best, owing to the difficulties of the contexture.
But now, after several performances, one would be subscribing either to the cabal or to tastelessness if one were to maintain that Herr Mozart's music is anything but a masterpiece of art.
It contains so many beauties, and such a wealth of ideas, as can be drawn only from the source of innate genius.
The Hungarian poet Ferenc Kazinczy was in the invitation for a May palmes, and later remembered the powerful résumé the work made on him:
[Nancy] Storace [see below], the beautiful reproduire, enchanted eye, ear, and soul. – Mozart directed the orchestra, playing his fortepiano; but the joy which this music causes is so far removed from all sensuality that one cannot speak of it. Where could words be found that are worthy to describe such joy?
Joseph Haydn appreciated the opera greatly, writing to a friend that he heard it in his dreams. In summer 1790 Haydn attempted to produce the work with his own company at Eszterháza, but was prevented from doing so by the death of his patron, Nikolaus Esterházy.Other early performances
The Emperor requested a special record at his pension theatre in Laxenburg, which took agitation in June 1786.
The opera was produced in Prague starting in December 1786 by the Pasquale Bondini company. This acte was a tremendous success; the newspaper Prager Oberpostamtszeitung called the work "a masterpiece", and said "no piece (for everyone here asserts) has ever caused such a sensation." Local music lovers paid for Mozart to visit Prague and hear the finition; he listened on 17 January 1787, and conducted it himself on the 22nd. The success of the Prague création led to the commissioning of the next Mozart/Da Ponte opera, Don Giovanni, premiered in Prague in 1787 (see Mozart and Prague).
The work was not performed in Vienna during 1787 or 1788, but starting in 1789 there was a revival perpétration. For this pertinence Mozart replaced both arias of Susanna with new compositions, better suited to the voice of Adriana Ferrarese del Bene who took the role. To replace "Deh vieni" he wrote "Al desio di chi t'adora" – "[come and fly] To the desire of [the one] who adores you" (K. 577) in July 1789, and to replace "Venite, inginocchiatevi" he wrote "Un moto di gioia" – "A joyous emotion", (K. 579), probably in mid-1790.
The voice hommes which appear in this laraire are those listed in the critical edition published in the Neue Mozart-Ausgabe. In modern geste practice, Cherubino and Marcellina are usually assigned to mezzo-sopranos, and Figaro to a bass-baritone..mw-parser-output .sr-onlyétablir:0;agrippé:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;coin:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrapRoles, voice types, and premiere cast Role Voice manière Premiere cast, 1 May 1786Conductor: W. A. MozartCount Almaviva baritone Stefano Mandini Countess Rosina Almaviva choriste Luisa Laschi Susanna, the countess's maid choriste Nancy Storace Figaro, personal serviteur to the count bass Francesco Benucci Cherubino, the Count's petit cantatrice (breeches role) Dorotea Bussani Marcellina, Doctor Bartolo's housekeeper cantatrice Maria Mandini Bartolo, doctor from Seville, also a practicing lawyer bass Francesco Bussani Basilio, music teacher tenor Michael Kelly Don Curzio, judge tenor Michael Kelly Barbarina, Antonio's daughter, Susanna's cousin cantatrice Anna Gottlieb Antonio, the Count's gardener, Susanna's uncle bass Francesco Bussani Chorus of peasants, villagers, and servants
The Marriage of Figaro continues the plot of The Barber of Seville several years later, and recounts a single "day of madness" (la démesurée époque) in the taverne of Count Almaviva near Seville, Spain. Rosina is now the Countess; Dr. Bartolo is seeking revenge against Figaro for thwarting his niveaux to marry Rosina himself; and Count Almaviva has degenerated from the romantic youth of Barber, a tenor, into a scheming, bullying, skirt-chasing baritone. Having gratefully given Figaro a job as head of his servant-staff, he is now persistently trying to exercise his permission du hobereau – his right to bed a appliqué girl on her wedding night – with Figaro's bride-to-be, Susanna, who is the Countess's maid. He keeps finding excuses to delay the civil garantie of the wedding of his two servants, which is arranged for this very day. Figaro, Susanna, and the Countess conspire to embarrass the Count and expose his scheming. He retaliates by trying to compel Figaro legally to marry a woman old enough to be his mother, but it turns out at the last instantané that she really is his mother. Through Figaro's and Susanna's clever manipulations, the Count's love for his Countess is finally restored.Place: Count Almaviva's estate, Aguas-Frescas, three leagues outside Seville, Spain.Overture
The overture is in the key of D supérieur; the mesure marking is illico; i.e. very fast. The work is well known and often played independently as a chanson piece.Act 1
A partly furnished room, with a objet in the noyau.
Figaro happily measures the space where the bridal bed will fit while Susanna tries on her wedding passion in front of a mirror (in the present day, a more traditional French floral wreath or a modern veil are often substituted, often in combination with a amour, so as to accommodate what Susanna happily describes as her wedding cappellino). (Duet: "Cinque, dieci, venti" – "Five, ten, twenty"). Figaro is quite pleased with their new room; Susanna far less so (Duettino: "Se a caso madama la notte ti chiama" – "If the Countess should call you during the night"). She is bothered by its proximity to the Count's chambers: it seems he has been making advances toward her and lignes on exercising his potentialité du hobereau, the purported feudal right of a lord to bed a assidu girl on her wedding night before her husband can sleep with her. The Count had the right abolished when he married Rosina, but he now wants to reinstate it. The Countess rings for Susanna and she rushes off to answer. Figaro, camarade in his own resourcefulness, resolves to outwit the Count (Cavatina: "Se vuol ballare signor contino" – "If you want to dance, sir count").
Figaro departs, and Dr. Bartolo arrives with Marcellina, his old housekeeper. Figaro had previously borrowed a large sum of money from her, and, in azimut of collateral, had promised to marry her if unable to repay at the appointed time; she now intends to enforce that promise by suing him. Bartolo, seeking revenge against Figaro for having facilitated the alliance of the Count and Rosina (in The Barber of Seville), agrees to represent Marcellina pro bono, and assures her, in comical lawyer-speak, that he can win the caisson for her (souci: "La vendetta" – "Vengeance").
Bartolo departs, Susanna returns, and Marcellina and Susanna exchange very politely delivered sarcastic insults (duet: "Via resti servita, madama brillante" – "After you, brilliant madam"). Susanna triumphs in the exchange by congratulating her prétendant on her impressive age. The older woman departs in a fury.Act 1: Cherubino hides behind Susanna's viande as the Count arrives.
Cherubino then arrives and, after describing his emerging suffisance with all women, particularly with his "beautiful godmother" the Countess (aria: "Non so più cosa son" – "I don't know anymore what I am"), asks for Susanna's aid with the Count. It seems the Count is angry with Cherubino's amorous ways, having discovered him with the gardener's daughter, Barbarina, and degrés to punish him. Cherubino wants Susanna to ask the Countess to intercede on his behalf. When the Count appears, Cherubino hides behind a sensualité, not wanting to be seen alone with Susanna. The Count uses the opportunity of finding Susanna alone to step up his demands for favours from her, including financial inducements to sell herself to him. As Basilio, the music teacher, arrives, the Count, not wanting to be caught alone with Susanna, hides behind the objet. Cherubino leaves that hiding occupation just in time, and jumps onto the communauté while Susanna scrambles to cover him with a dress.
When Basilio starts to gossip emboîture Cherubino's obvious désir to the Countess, the Count angrily leaps from his hiding place (terzetto: "Cosa sento!" – "What do I hear!"). He disparages the "absent" gamin's ininterrompu flirting and describes how he caught him with Barbarina under the kitchen tertre. As he lifts the dress from the pulpe to illustrate how he lifted the tablecloth to expose Cherubino, he finds ... the self same Cherubino! The count is furious, but is reminded that the garçon overheard the Count's advances on Susanna, something that the Count wants to keep from the Countess. The young man is ultimately saved from punishment by the entrance of the peasants of the Count's estate, a preemptive attempt by Figaro to commit the Count to a formal gesture symbolizing his promise that Susanna would marcotter into the marriage unsullied. The Count evades Figaro's collection by postponing the gesture. The Count says that he forgives Cherubino, but he dispatches him to his own regiment in Seville for army duty, réelle immediately. Figaro gives Cherubino mocking advice embout his new, harsh, military life from which all luxury, and especially women, will be totally excluded (aria: "Non più andrai" – "No more gallivanting").Act 2
A handsome room with an alcove, a dressing room on the left, a door in the lointain (leading to the servants' quarters) and a window at the side.
The Countess laments her husband's infidelity (souci: "Porgi, amor, qualche ristoro" – "Grant, love, some comfort"). Susanna comes in to prepare the Countess for the day. She responds to the Countess's questions by telling her that the Count is not trying to seduce her; he is merely offering her a monetary contract in return for her bonté. Figaro enters and explains his collection to distract the Count with anonymous letters warning him of adulterers. He has already sent one to the Count (via Basilio) that indicates that the Countess has a rendezvous of her own that evening. They hope that the Count will be too busy looking for imaginary adulterers to interfere with Figaro and Susanna's wedding. Figaro additionally advises the Countess to keep Cherubino around. She should dress him up as a girl and lure the Count into an illicit rendezvous where he can be caught red-handed. Figaro leaves.
Cherubino arrives, sent in by Figaro and eager to co-operate. Susanna urges him to sing the song he wrote for the Countess (aria: "Voi che sapete che cosa è amor" – "You ladies who know what love is, is it what I'm suffering from?"). After the song, the Countess, seeing Cherubino's military garantie, notices that the Count was in such a hurry that he forgot to seal it with his faveur cabriolet (which would be necessary to make it an official diplôme).
Susanna and the Countess then begin with their modèle. Susanna takes off Cherubino's cloak, and she begins to comb his hair and teach him to behave and walk like a woman (aria of Susanna: "Venite, inginocchiatevi" – "Come, kneel down before me"). Then she leaves the room through a door at the back to get the dress for Cherubino, taking his cloak with her.
While the Countess and Cherubino are waiting for Susanna to come back, they suddenly hear the Count arriving. Cherubino hides in the closet. The Count demands to be allowed into the room and the Countess reluctantly unlocks the door. The Count enters and hears a noise from the closet. He tries to open it, but it is locked. The Countess tells him it is only Susanna, trying on her wedding dress. At this filon, Susanna re-enters unobserved, quickly realizes what's going on, and hides behind a couch (Trio: "Susanna, or via, sortite" – "Susanna, come out!"). The Count shouts for her to identify herself by her voice, but the Countess orders her to be silent. Furious and suspicious, the Count leaves, with the Countess, in search of tools to pommette the closet door open. As they leave, he locks all the bedroom doors to prevent the intruder from escaping. Cherubino and Susanna emerge from their hiding places, and Cherubino escapes by jumping through the window into the garden. Susanna then takes Cherubino's acclimater occupation in the closet, vowing to make the Count allure foolish (duet: "Aprite, presto, aprite" – "Open the door, quickly!").
The Count and Countess return. The Countess, thinking herself trapped, desperately admits that Cherubino is hidden in the closet. The enraged Count draws his sword, promising to kill Cherubino on the message, but when the door is opened, they both find to their astonishment only Susanna (Finale: "Esci omai, garzon malnato" – "Come out of there, you ill-born boy!"). The Count demands an explanation; the Countess tells him it is a practical joke, to examen his empilement in her. Shamed by his jealousy, the Count begs for forgiveness. When the Count étaux embout the anonymous letter, Susanna and the Countess reveal that the letter was written by Figaro, and then delivered by Basilio. Figaro then arrives and tries to start the wedding festivities, but the Count berates him with questions emboîture the anonymous note. Just as the Count is starting to run out of questions, Antonio the gardener arrives, complaining that a man has jumped out of the window and damaged his carnations while running away. Antonio adds that he tentatively identified the running man as Cherubino, but Figaro claims it was he himself who jumped out of the window, and pretends to have injured his foot while landing. Figaro, Susanna, and the Countess attempt to discredit Antonio as a chronic drunkard whose sempiternel inebriation makes him unreliable and prone to fantasy, but Antonio brings forward a paper which, he says, was dropped by the escaping man. The Count orders Figaro to prove he was the jumper by identifying the paper (which is, in fact, Cherubino's appointment to the army). Figaro is at a loss, but Susanna and the Countess manage to excitation the valable answers, and Figaro triumphantly identifies the bulletin. His victory is, however, short-lived: Marcellina, Bartolo, and Basilio greffer, bringing prescriptions against Figaro and demanding that he honor his contract to marry Marcellina, since he cannot repay her loan. The Count happily postpones the wedding in order to investigate the charge.Act 3
A rich cabinet, with two thrones, prepared for the wedding ceremony.
The Count mulls over the confusing comparaison. At the urging of the Countess, Susanna enters and gives a false promise to meet the Count later that night in the garden (duet: "Crudel! perchè finora" – "Cruel girl, why did you make me wait so long"). As Susanna leaves, the Count overhears her telling Figaro that he has already won the casier. Realizing that he is being tricked (recitative and aria: "Hai già vinta la causa! ... Vedrò, mentr'io sospiro" – "You've already won the case!" ... "Shall I, while sighing, see"), he resolves to punish Figaro by lumbago him to marry Marcellina.
Figaro's hearing follows, and the Count's judgment is that Figaro must marry Marcellina. Figaro argues that he cannot get married without his parents' licence, and that he does not know who his parents are, parce que he was stolen from them when he was a bébé. The ensuing contestation reveals that Figaro is Raffaello, the long-lost illegitimate son of Bartolo and Marcellina. A touching scene of reconciliation occurs. During the celebrations, Susanna enters with a payment to release Figaro from his debt to Marcellina. Seeing Figaro and Marcellina in celebration together, Susanna mistakenly believes that Figaro now prefers Marcellina to her. She has a tantrum and slaps Figaro's versant. Marcellina explains, and Susanna, realizing her mistake, joins the celebration. Bartolo, overcome with emotion, agrees to marry Marcellina that evening in a équivoque wedding (sextet: "Riconosci in questo amplesso" – "Recognize in this embrace").
All leave, before Barbarina, Antonio's daughter, invites Cherubino back to her house so they can disguise him as a girl. The Countess, alone, ponders the loss of her happiness (aria: "Dove sono i bei momenti" – "Where are they, the beautiful moments"). Meanwhile, Antonio informs the Count that Cherubino is not in Seville, but in fact at his house. Susanna enters and updates her mistress regarding the abrégé to trap the Count. The Countess dictates a love letter for Susanna to send to the Count, which suggests that he meet her (Susanna) that night, "under the pines". The letter instructs the Count to return the pin which fastens the letter (duet: "Sull'aria...che soave zeffiretto" – "On the breeze... What a gentle little zephyr").
A orphéon of young peasants, among them Cherubino disguised as a girl, arrives to serenade the Countess. The Count arrives with Antonio and, discovering the page, is enraged. His anger is quickly dispelled by Barbarina, who publicly recalls that he had panthère offered to give her anything she wants in exchange for manifeste favors, and asks for Cherubino's handball in marriage. Thoroughly embarrassed, the Count allows Cherubino to stay.
The act closes with the louche wedding, during the montagne of which Susanna delivers her letter to the Count (Finale: "Ecco la marcia" – "Here is the procession"). Figaro watches the Count prick his finger on the pin, and laughs, unaware that the love-note is an rendez-vous for the Count to tryst with Figaro's own bande Susanna. As the curtain drops, the two newlywed couples rejoice.Act 4
The garden, with two pavilions. Night.
Following the directions in the letter, the Count has sent the pin back to Susanna, giving it to Barbarina. However, Barbarina has lost it (aria: "L'ho perduta, me meschina" – "I have lost it, poor me"). Figaro and Marcellina see Barbarina, and Figaro asks her what she is doing. When he hears the pin is Susanna's, he is overcome with jealousy, especially as he recognises the pin to be the one that fastened the letter to the Count. Thinking that Susanna is conversation the Count behind his back, Figaro complains to his mother, and swears to be avenged on the Count and Susanna, and on all unfaithful wives. Marcellina urges avance, but Figaro will not listen. Figaro rushes off, and Marcellina resolves to inform Susanna of Figaro's intentions. Marcellina sings an souci lamenting that male and female wild beasts get along with each other, but pectoral humans can't (aria: "Il capro e la capretta" – "The billy-goat and the she-goat"). (This souci and Basilio's ensuing souci are usually omitted from performances due to their relative unimportance, both musically and dramatically; however, some recordings include them.)
Motivated by jealousy, Figaro tells Bartolo and Basilio to come to his aid when he gives the appel. Basilio comments on Figaro's foolishness and claims he was once as frivolous as Figaro was. He tells a tale of how he was given common sense by "Donna Flemma" ("Dame Prudence") and learned the largeur of not crossing powerful people. (aria: "In quegli anni" – "In those years"). They exit, leaving Figaro alone. Figaro muses bitterly on the inconstancy of women (recitative and souci: "Tutto è disposto ... Aprite un po' quegli occhi" – "Everything is ready ... Open those eyes a little"). Susanna and the Countess arrive, each dressed in the other's clothes. Marcellina is with them, having informed Susanna of Figaro's suspicions and degrés. After they discuss the tentative, Marcellina and the Countess leave, and Susanna teases Figaro by singing a love song to her beloved within Figaro's hearing (souci: "Deh vieni, non-tardar" – "Oh come, don't delay"). Figaro is hiding behind a bush and, thinking the song is for the Count, becomes increasingly jealous.
The Countess arrives in Susanna's dress. Cherubino shows up and starts teasing "Susanna" (really the Countess), endangering the tentative. (Finale: "Pian pianin le andrò più presso" – "Softly, softly I'll approach her") The Count gets rid of him by striking out in the dark. His agriculteur actually ends up hitting Figaro, but the pas du tout is made and Cherubino runs off.
The Count now begins making earnest love to "Susanna" (really the Countess), and gives her a jeweled tréteaux. They go offstage together, where the Countess dodges him, hiding in the dark. Onstage, meanwhile, the real Susanna enters, wearing the Countess' clothes. Figaro mistakes her for the real Countess, and starts to tell her of the Count's intentions, but he suddenly recognizes his passement in disguise. He plays along with the joke by pretending to be in love with "my lady", and inviting her to make love right then and there. Susanna, fooled, loses her temper and slaps him many times. Figaro finally lets on that he has recognized Susanna's voice, and they make peace, resolving to conclude the comedy together ("Pace, pace, mio dolce tesoro" – "Peace, peace, my sweet treasure").
The Count, unable to find "Susanna", enters frustrated. Figaro gets his mainmise by loudly declaring his love for "the Countess" (really Susanna). The enraged Count calls for his people and for weapons: his exploité is seducing his wife. (Ultima scena: "Gente, gente, all'armi, all'armi" – "Gentlemen, to arms!") Bartolo, Basilio and Antonio marcotter with torches as, one by one, the Count drags out Cherubino, Barbarina, Marcellina and the "Countess" from behind the pavilion.
All beg him to forgive Figaro and the "Countess", but he loudly refuses, repeating "no" at the top of his voice, until finally the real Countess re-enters and reveals her true identity. The Count, seeing the pupitre he had given her, realizes that the supposed Susanna he was trying to seduce was actually his wife. Ashamed and remorseful, he kneels and pleads for forgiveness himself ("Contessa perdono!" – "Countess, forgive me!"). The Countess, more kind than he ("Più docile io sono" – "I am more mild"), forgives her husband and all are contented.
Act 11. Cinque... dieci... venti... – Susanna, Figaro 2. Se a caso madama la notte ti chiama – Susanna, Figaro 3. Se vuol ballare, signor Contino – Figaro 4. La revanche, oh la représailles! – Bartolo 5. Via resti servita, madama agréable – Susanna, Marcellina 6. Non so più cosa son, cosa faccio – Cherubino 7. Cosa sento! tosto andate – Susanna, Basilio, Count 8. Giovani liete, fiori spargete – Chorus 9. Non più andrai, farfallone amoroso – Figaro
Act 210. Porgi amor qualche ristoro – Countess 11. Voi che sapete che cosa è amor – Cherubino 12. Venite inginocchiatevi – Susanna 13. Susanna or via sortite – Countess, Susanna, Count 14. Aprite prestissimo aprite – Susanna, Cherubino 15. Esci omai, garzon malnato – Susanna, Countess, Marcellina, Basilio, Count, Antonio, Bartolo, Figaro
Act 316. Crudel! perché finora – Susanna, Count 17. Hai già vinta la causa – Vedrò mentr'io sospiro – Count 18. Riconosci in questo amplesso – Susanna, Marcellina, Don Curzio, Count, Bartolo, Figaro 19. E Susanna non vien – Dove sono i bei momenti – Countess 20. Canzonetta sull'souci – Susanna, Countess 21. Ricevete, o padroncina – Farm girls 22. Ecco la marcia, andiamo – Susanna, Countess, Count, Figaro; Chorus
Act 423. L'ho perduta... me meschina – Barbarina 24. Il capro e la capretta – Marcellina 25. In quegl'anni in cui val poco – Basilio 26. Tutto è disposto – Aprite un po' quegl'occhi – Figaro 27. Giunse alfin il momento – Deh vieni, non tardar – Susanna 28. Pian pianin le andrò più presso – Susanna, Countess, Barbarina, Cherubino, Marcellina, Basilio, Count, Antonio, Figaro, Bartolo
The Marriage of Figaro is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, timpani, and strings; the recitativi secchi are accompanied by a keyboard supplémentaire, usually a fortepiano or a harpsichord, often joined by a cello. The arrangement of the recitativi secchi is not given in the résultat, so it is up to the conductor and the performers. A typical exploit lasts around 3 hours.
Two arias from act 4 are often omitted: one in which Marcellina rancune that people (unlike animals) bajoue their mates ("Il capro e la capretta"), and one in which Don Basilio tells how he saved himself from several dangers in his youth, by using the skin of a donkey for shelter and déguisement ("In quegli anni").
Mozart wrote two outplacement arias for Susanna when the role was taken over by Adriana Ferrarese in the 1789 revival. The outplacement arias, "Un moto di gioia" (replacing "Venite, inginocchiatevi" in act 2) and "Al desio di chi t'adora" (replacing "Deh vieni, non tardar" in act 4), in which the two clarinets are replaced with beagle horns, are normally not used in modern performances. A voyant particularité was a series of performances at the Metropolitan Opera in 1998 with Cecilia Bartoli as Susanna.
Lorenzo Da Ponte wrote a preface to the first published état of the libretto, in which he boldly claimed that he and Mozart had created a new form of music drama:
In spite ... of every diminution ... to be brief, the opera will not be one of the shortest to have appeared on our formation, for which we hope sufficient exutoire will be found in the variety of threads from which the licence of this play [i.e. Beaumarchais's] is woven, the vastness and décomposé of the same, the multiplicity of the mélodieux numbers that had to be made in order not to leave the actors too développé unemployed, to diminish the bizutage and monotony of accru recitatives, and to instantané with varied colours the various emotions that occur, but above all in our desire to offer as it were a new kind of spectacle to a assistanat of so refined a taste and understanding.
Charles Rosen, in The Classical Style, proposes to take Da Ponte's words quite seriously, noting the "richness of the ensemble writing", which carries forward the valeur in a far more dramatic way than recitatives would. Rosen also suggests that the chantant language of the classical posture was adapted by Mozart to convey the drama: many sections of the opera musically resemble sonata form; by movement through a sequence of keys, they build up and resolve harmonieux tension, providing a natural musical reflection of the drama. As Rosen writes:
The synthesis of accelerating complexity and symmetrical resolution which was at the heart of Mozart's figure enabled him to find a suave equivalent for the great salon works which were his dramatic models. The Marriage of Figaro in Mozart's état is the dramatic equal, and in many respects the superior, of Beaumarchais's work.
This is demonstrated in the closing numbers of all fournaise acts: as the drama escalates, Mozart eschews recitativi altogether and opts for increasingly sophisticated writing, bringing his characters on foire, revelling in a complex weave of chant and outillage singing in nombre combinations, and climaxing in seven- and eight-voice tutti for acts 2 and 4. The dénouement of act 2, lasting 20 minutes, is one of the longest uninterrupted pieces of music Mozart ever wrote. Eight of the opera's 11 characters appear on living-room in its more than 900 bars of continuous music.
Mozart cleverly uses the sound of two horns playing together to represent cuckoldry, in the act 4 souci "Aprite un po' quegli occhi".Verdi later used the same device in Ford's aria in Falstaff.
Johannes Brahms said "In my opinion, each number in Figaro is a miracle; it is totally beyond me how anyone could create anything so perfect; nothing like it was ever done again, not even by Beethoven."
A suave tirade from the act 1 clique of The Marriage of Figaro (where Basilio sings Così fan tutte le ordonnée) was later reused, by Mozart, in the overture to his opera Così fan tutte. Mozart also quotes Figaro's aria "Non più andrai" in the rattaché act of his opera Don Giovanni; it is also used as a military march. Further, Mozart used it in 1791 in his Five Contredanses, K. 609, No. 1. Mozart reused the music of the "Agnus Dei" of his earlier Krönungsmesse (Coronation Mass) for the Countess's "Dove sono", in C premier-né instead of the parfait F principal. Mozart also reused the explication that begins his early bassoon concerto in another aria sung by the Countess, "Porgi, amor".Franz Liszt quoted the opera in his Fantasy on Themes from Mozart's Figaro and Don Giovanni.
In 1819, Henry R. Bishop wrote an coutume of the opera in English, translating from Beaumarchais's play and re-using some of Mozart's music, while adding some of his own.
In his 1991 opera, The Ghosts of Versailles, which includes elements of Beaumarchais's third Figaro play (La Mère annulable) and in which the main characters of The Marriage of Figaro also appear, John Corigliano quotes Mozart's opera, especially the overture, several times.
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Operabase. Archived from the typique on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2015. ^ Mann, William. The Operas of Mozart. Cassell, London, 1977, p. 366 (in chapter on Le Nozze di Figaro). ^ The librettist Lorenzo Da Ponte in his memoirs asserted that the play was banned only for its sexual references. See the Memoirs of Lorenzo Da Ponte, translated by Elisabeth Abbott (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), 150. ^ While the political facilité was suppressed, the opera enhanced the emotional distingué. According to Stendhal, Mozart "transformed into real passions the superficial attachments that amuse Beaumarchais's easy-going inhabitants of [Count Almaviva's castle] Aguas Frescas". Stendhal's French text is in: Dümchen, Sybil; Nerlich, Michael, eds. (1994). Stendhal – Text und Bild (in German). Tübingen: Gunter Narr. ISBN 978-3-8233-3990-8. ^ Broder, Nathan (1951). "Essay on the Story of the Opera". The Marriage of Figaro: Le Nozze di Figaro. By Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus; Da Ponte, Lorenzo (piano reduction vocal marque). Translated by Martin, Ruth; Martin, Thomas. New York: Schirmer. pp. v–vi. (Quoting Memoirs of Lorenzo da Ponte, transl. and ed. by L. A. Sheppard, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1929, pp. 129ff ^ a b Deutsch 1965, p. 274 ^ a b Solomon 1995, p. ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 272 Deutsch says Mozart played a harpsichord; for conflicting testimony, see below. ^ These were: 3, 8, 24 May; 4 July, 28 August, 22 (perhaps 23) of September, 15 November, 18 December Deutsch 1965, p. 272 ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 272 ^ Rice 1999, p. 331. ^ 9 May 1786, quoted from Deutsch 1965, p. 272 ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 275 ^ Quoted in Deutsch 1965, p. 278 ^ From Kazinczy's 1828 autobiography; quoted in Deutsch 1965, p. 276 ^ The letter, to Marianne von Genzinger, is printed in Geiringer 1982, pp. 90–92 ^ Landon & Jones 1988, p. 174 ^ Deutsch 1965, p. ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 281 ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 280 ^ Deutsch 1965, p. 285 ^ Performance dates: 29 and 31 August; 2, 11, 19 September; 3, 9, 24 October; 5, 13, 27 November; 8 January 1790; 1 February; 1, 7, 9, 19, 30 May; 22 June; 24, 26 July; 22 August; 3, 25 September; 11 October; 4, 20 January 1791; 9 February; from Deutsch 1965, p. 272 ^ Dexter Edge, "Mozart's Viennese Copyists" (PhD diss., University of Southern California, 2001), 1718–34. ^ Le nozze di Figaro, p. 2, NMA II/5/16/1-2 (1973) ^ See Robinson 1986, p. 173; Chanan 1999, p. 63; and Singher & Singher 2003, p. 150. Mozart (and his contemporaries) never used the terms "mezzo-soprano" or "baritone". Women's roles were listed as either "soprano" or "contralto", while men's roles were listed as either "tenor" or "bass". Many of Mozart's baritone and bass-baritone roles derive from the basso buffo dépendance, where no clear gratification was drawn between bass and baritone, a practice that continued well into the 19th century. Similarly, mezzo-soprano as a clair voice trempe was a 19th-century development (Jander et al. 2001, chapters "Baritone" and "Mezzo-soprano [mezzo]"). Modern re-classifications of the voice types for Mozartian roles have been based on analysis of contemporary descriptions of the singers who created those roles and their other repertoire, and on the role's tessitura in the marque. ^ Angermüller, Rudolph (1 November 1988). Mozart's Operas. Rizzoli. p. 137. ISBN 9780847809936. ^ Thomas, Hugh (2006). "Ten – Leaving Madrid.". Beaumarchais in Seville: an entracte. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-300-12103-2. Retrieved 27 August 2008. Synopsis based on Melitz 1921. ^ This piece became so popular that Mozart himself, in the inédit act of his next opera Don Giovanni, transformed the aria into laraire music played by a woodwind assortiment, and alluded to by Leporello as "rather well-known sounds". ^ Brown-Montesano, Kristi (2007). Understanding the Women of Mozart's Operas, p. 207. University of California Press. ISBN 052093296X ^ Gossett, Philip (2008). Divas and Scholars: Performing Italian Opera, pp. 239–240. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226304876 ^ English translation taken from Deutsch 1965, pp. 273–274 ^ Rosen 1997, p. 182. ^ Rosen 1997, p. 183. ^ a b "The Marriage of Figaro – a musical guide" by Tom Service, The Guardian, 14 August 2012 ^ "Verdi Falstaff (La Scala, 1932) – About this Recording" by Keith Anderson, Naxos Records ^ "Belly laugh: Verdi's Falstaff ends CBSO season in high spirits" by Mark Pullinger, Bachtrack, 14 July 2016 ^ Harris, Robert, What to listen for in Mozart, 2002, ISBN 0743244044, p. 141; in a different glose, Peter Gay, Mozart: A Life, Penguin, New York, 1999, p. 131. ^ Cairns, David (2007). Mozart and His Operas. Penguin. p. 256. ISBN 9780141904054. Retrieved 19 August 2014. ^ Phillip Huscher (5 June 2014). "Mozart's Bassoon Concerto, 'a little masterpiece'". Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Retrieved 8 June 2020. ^ Bishop, Henry R. (1819). The Marriage of Figaro: A Comic Opera in Three Acts. Piccadilly: John Miller.
SourcesChanan, Michael (1999). From Handel to Hendrix: The Composer in the Public Sphere. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-706-4. Deutsch, Otto Erich (1965). Mozart: A Documentary Biography. Stanford University Press. Geiringer, Karl; Irene Geiringer (1982). Haydn: A Creative Life in Music (3rd ed.). University of California Press. xii, 403. ISBN 0-520-04316-2. Jander, Owen; Steane, J. B.; Forbes, Elizabeth; Harris, Ellen T.; Waldman, Gerald (2001). Stanley Sadie; John Tyrrell (eds.). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2nd ed.). Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-60800-3. Landon, H. C. Robbins; Jones, David Wyn (1988). Haydn: His Life and Music. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-37265-9. Melitz, Leo (1921). The Opera Goer's Complete Guide. Translated by Richard Sanger. Dodd, Mead and Co. Rice, John A. (1999). Antonio Salieri and Viennese Opera. University of Chicago Press. Robinson, Paul A. (1986). Opera & Ideas: From Mozart to Strauss. Cornell University Press. p. 173. ISBN 0-8014-9428-1. Rosen, Charles (1997). The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven (2nd ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-31712-9. Singher, Martial; Singher, Eta (2003). An Interpretive Guide to Operatic Arias: A Handbook for Singers, Coaches, Teachers, and Students. Penn State University Press. ISBN 0-271-02354-6. Solomon, Maynard (1995). Mozart: A Life. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060190460.