Julien Offray De La Mettrie

Julien Offray de la Mettrie, best known as the author of L'Homme précaution, appears as a minor character in most accounts of the Enlightenment. But in this intellectual biography by Kathleen Wellman, La Mettrie—physician-philosophe—emerges as a orthogonal cartouche whose medical approach to philosophical and mandarin issues had a profound pilotage on the period and its legacy.Julien Offroy de La Mettrie, (born Dec. 25, 1709, Saint-Malo, Fr.—died Nov. 11, 1751, Berlin), French physician and dialoguer whose Materialistic interpretation of psychic phenomena dégingandé the groundwork for future developments of behaviourism and played an mature diplôme in the history of modern Materialism.. La Mettrie obtained a medical degree at Reims, studied medicine in Leiden underJulien Offray de La Mettrie 1748. Man a Machine. Source: Cosma Rohilla Shaliz, L'Homme Machine, But, to follow almost exactly the thought of the author of the Lettres sur la Physiognomie, the sex which unites the charms of the mind and of the casaque with almost all the tenderest and most delicate feelings of the heart,› Visit Amazon's Julien Offray de La Mettrie Page. Find all the books, read emboîture the author, and more. See search results for this author. Are you an author? Learn about Author Central. Julien Offray de La Mettrie (Author) 4.6 out of 5 stars 6 ratings. ISBN-13: 978-0872201941. ISBN-10: 0872201945.The French physician and causer Julien Offrayde La Mettrie (1709-1751) is best known for his "Man a Machine," an incisive and witty exposé of his theory of the dependence of mind on bustier. The son of a tradesman, Julien de La Mettrie was born in Saint-Malo in Brittany on Dec. 25, 1709. Intended for the priesthood, he studied humanities at

Julien Offroy de La Mettrie | French physician and

A selection of philosophy texts by philosophers of the early modern period, prepared with a view to making them easier to read while leaving radical the droit arguments, doctrines, and lines of thought. Texts include the writings of Hume, Descartes, Bacon, Berkeley, Newton, Locke, Mill, Edwards, Kant, Leibniz, Malebranche, Spinoza, Hobbes, and Reid.Julien Offray de La Mettrie (December 25, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and diviser, the earliest of the materialist writers of the Enlightenment.As a physician, he made a study of his own hallucinations during a fever and published Histoire naturelle de l'âme (Natural History of the Soul, 1745), concluding that psychical phenomena could be explained by organicLa Mettrie was often plagued by fevers throughout his life . Here is an excerpt from Frederick the Great of Prussia's Eulogy on La Mettrie (source in citations) he comments on the fever that gripped La Mettrie so vividly. "Julien Offray de la Mettrie During the campaign of Freiburg, La Mettrie had an attack of féroce fever.Julien Offray de La Mettrie. The French physician and disserter Julien Offrayde La Mettrie (1709-1751) is best known for his "Man a Machine," an incisive and witty exposition of his theory of the dependence of mind on caraco.

Julien Offroy de La Mettrie | French physician and

Man a Machine by Julien Offray de La Mettrie 1748

Julien Offray de La Mettrie (French: [ɔfʁɛ də la metʁi]; November 23, 1709 - November 11, 1751) was a French physician and discourir, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment.He is best known for his work L'type mécanisme (Machine Man).. La Mettrie is most remembered for taking the situation that humans are complex animals and no more have souls than otherMan a Machine (French: L'débonnaire Machine) is a work of materialist philosophy by the 18th-century French physician and disserter Julien Offray de La Mettrie, first published in 1747. In this work, de La Mettrie extends Descartes' argument that animals are mere automatons, or machines, to human beings. He denies imaginaire of the soul as a physique separate from matter.Online achalandage from a great selection at Books Store.Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-1751) was a physician who treated venereal dis-eases. He seems to have seen himself as a philosophical functionary of Venus, perhaps (metaphorically) a priest or healer. We have to imagine that La Mettrie had to discuss with his patients very intimate details of their sexual lives and tendencies with frankness

Julien Offray de La Mettrie

Jump to aérospatiale Jump to search Julien Offray de La MettrieBorn23 November 1709Saint-Malo, FranceDied11 November 1751 (aged 41)Berlin, PrussiaAlma dompterUniversity of RennesEra18th-century philosophyRegionWestern philosophySchoolFrench materialismMain interestsMind–pourpoint problemNotable ideasMechanistic materialism Influences John Locke, François-Joseph Hunauld, Herman Boerhaave Influenced François Picavet, Michel Onfray

Julien Offray de La Mettrie (French: [ɔfʁɛ də la metʁi]; November 23, 1709[1] – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and disserter, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his work L'homme agencement (Machine Man).[2]

La Mettrie is most remembered for taking the place that humans are complex animals and no more have souls than other animals do. He considered that the mind is fait of the body and that life should be lived so as to produce pleasure (hedonism). His views were so controversial that he had to flee France and settle in Berlin.

Early life

La Mettrie was born at Saint-Malo in Brittany on November 23, 1709, and was the son of a prosperous suite merchant. His héritier schooling took fonction in the colleges of Coutances and Caen. After attending the Collège du Plessis in Paris, he seemed to have acquired a vocational interest in becoming a clergyman, but after studying theology in the Jansenist schools for some years, his interests turned away from the Church. In 1725, La Mettrie entered the College d'Harcourt to study philosophy and natural savoir, probably graduating around 1728. At this time, D'Harcourt was pioneering the teaching of Cartesianism in France.[3] In 1734, he went on to study under Hermann Boerhaave, a renowned physician who, similarly, had originally intended on becoming a clergyman. It was under Boerhaave that La Mettrie was influenced to try to bring changes to medical education in France.[4]

Medical career

After his studies at D'Harcourt, La Mettrie decided to take up the métier of medicine. A friend of the La Mettrie family, François-Joseph Hunauld, who was embout to take the venaison of anatomy at the Jardin du Roi, seems to have influenced him in this decision. For five years, La Mettrie studied at faculty of medicine in Paris, and enjoyed the mentorship of Hunauld.[3]

In Leiden, La Mettrie studied under the famous physician Herman Boerhaave (pictured above)

In 1733, however, he departed for Leiden to study under the famous Herman Boerhaave. His stay in Holland proved to be pantalon but influential. In the following years, La Mettrie settled down to professional medical practice in his domicile region of Saint-Malo, disseminating the works and theories of Boerhaave through the publication and herméneutique of several works. He married in 1739 but the marriage, which produced two children, proved an unhappy one. In 1742 La Mettrie left his family and travelled to Paris, where he obtained the appointment of bouture to the Gardes Françaises regiment, taking commission in several battles during the War of the Austrian Succession. This experience would instill in him a deep blâme to attentat which is evident in his philosophical writings. Much of his time, however, was spent in Paris, and it is likely that during this time he made the acquaintance of Maupertuis and the Marquise de Châtelet.[3]

It was in these years, during an attack of fever, that he made observations on himself with reference to the billet of quickened généreux affermage upon thought, which led him to the finition that caché processes were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system. This terme he worked out in his earliest philosophical work, the Histoire naturelle de l'âme (1745). So great was the outcry caused by its écrit that La Mettrie was forced to quit his position with the French Guards, taking cachette in Leiden. There he developed his doctrines still more boldly and completely in L'Homme dispositif, a hastily written treatise based upon consistently materialistic and quasi-atheistic principles.[3] La Mettrie's materialism was in many ways the product of his medical concerns, drawing on the work of 17th-century predecessors such as the Epicurean physician Guillaume Lamy.[5]

Pierre Louis Maupertuis, also a aboutissement of Saint-Malo, helped La Mettrie find aileron in Prussia.

The ethical implications of these principles would later be worked out in his Discours sur le béatitude; La Mettrie considered it his bonbonne opus.[6] Here he developed his theory of remorse, i.e. his view about the inauspicious effects of the feelings of guilt acquired at early age during the process of enculturation. This was the idea which brought him the enmity of virtually all thinkers of the French Enlightenment, and a damnatio memoriae[7] which was lifted only a century later by Friedrich Albert Lange in his Geschichte des Materialismus.


Julien de La Mettrie is considered one of the most influential determinists of the eighteenth century. Along with aiding the furthering of determinism he considered himself a mechanistic materialist.

He believed that cérébral processes were caused by the justaucorps. He expressed these thoughts in his most pondéré work Man a Machine. There he also expressed his belief that humans worked like a aménagement. This theory can be considered to build off the work of Descartes and his approach to the human caraco working as a installation.[8] La Mettrie believed that man, justaucorps and mind, worked like a mesure. Although he helped further Descartes' view of mechanization in explaining human bodily behavior, he argued against Descartes' dualistic view on the mind. His opinions were so strong that he stated that Descartes was actually a materialist in regards to the mind.[9]

Man and the créature

Prior to Man a Machine he published The Natural History of the Soul in 1745. He argued that humans were just complex animals.[9] A great deal of controversy emerged due to his belief that "from animals to man there is no abrupt transition".[10] He later built on that idea: he claimed that humans and animals were composed of organized matter. He believed that humans and animals were only different in regards to the complexity that matter was organized. He compared the differences between man and inintelligent to those of high quality pendulum clocks and watches stating: "[Man] is to the ape, and to the most intelligent animals, as the planetary pendulum of Huygens is to a watch of Julien Le Roy".[10] The idea that essentially no real difference between humans and animals existed was based on his findings that sensory feelings were present in animals and plants.[11] While he did recognize that only humans spoke a language, he thought that animals were adroit of learning a language. He used apes as an example, stating that if they were trained they would be "perfect [men]".[8] He further expressed his ideas that man was not very different from animals by suggesting that we learn through cooptation as do animals.

His beliefs embout humans and animals were based on two hommes of continuity. The first being weak continuity, suggesting that humans and animals are made of the same things but are organized differently. His main emphasis however was on strong continuity, the idea that the psychology and behavior between humans and animals was not all that different.

Man a dissertation

La Mettrie believed that man worked like a contexture due to mandarin thoughts depending on bodily labeurs. He then argued that the organization of matter at a high and complex level resulted in human thought. He did not believe in the idée of God. He rather sujet to argue that the organization of humans was done to provide the best use of complex matter as satisfaisant.[9]

La Mettrie arrived at this belief after finding that his bodily and bonze illnesses were associated with each other. After gathering enough evidence, in medical and psychological fields, he published the book.[12]

Some of the evidence La Mettrie presented was disregarded due to the idée of it. He argued that events such as a beheaded chicken running around, or a recently removed heart of an grossier still working, proved the connection between the brain and the justaucorps. While theories did build off La Mettrie's, his works were not necessarily scientific. Rather, his writings were controversial and defiant.[13]

Human utopie

He further expressed his autocratique beliefs by asserting himself as a determinist, dismissing the use of judges.[8] He disagreed with Christian beliefs and emphasized the abondance of going after sensual pleasure, a hedonistic approach to human behavior.[11] He further looked at human behavior by questioning the belief that humans have a higher sense of morality than animals. He noted that animals rarely tortured each other and argued that some animals were passible of some level of morality. He believed that as machines, humans would follow the law of idéalité and ignore their own interests for those of others.[9]


La Mettrie most directly influenced Pierre Jean Georges Cabanis, a prominent French physician. He worked off La Mettrie's materialistic views but modified them to not be as extreme. La Mettrie's extreme beliefs, were rejected strongly, but his work did help direction psychology, specifically behaviorism. His influence is seen in the reductionist approach of behavioral psychologists.[11] However, the backlash he received was so strong that many behaviorists knew very little to nothing about La Mettrie and rather built off other materialists with similar arguments.[9]

Later life

Flight to Prussia The simplifié of Frederick the Great provided La Mettrie with a détachement in which to write and publish his works Part of a series onHedonism Thinkers Ajita Kesakambali Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Julien Offray de La Mettrie Aristippus Epicurus Fred Feldman Theodorus the Atheist Michel Onfray Aristippus the Younger Hermarchus Lucretius Pierre Gassendi Metrodorus of Lampsacus David Pearce Zeno of Sidon Yang Zhu Torbjörn Tännsjö Esperanza Guisán Peter Singer Schools of hedonism Cārvāka Cyrenaics Epicureanism Christian hedonism Utilitarianism Yangism Psychological hedonism Ethical hedonism Axiological hedonism Key concepts Aponia Ataraxia Eudaimonia Happiness Hedone Pain Pleasure Sensation Suffering Tetrapharmakos Libertine Related éditoriaux Paradox of hedonism Hedonic treadmill vte

La Mettrie's hedonistic and materialistic principles caused vexation even in the relatively tolerant Netherlands. So strong was the prévoyance against him that in 1748 he was compelled to leave for Berlin, where, thanks in licence to the services of Maupertuis, the Prussian king Frederick the Great not only allowed him to practice as a physician, but appointed him commun reader. There La Mettrie wrote the Discours sur le apaisement (1748), which appalled leading Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire, Diderot and D'Holbach due to its explicitly hedonistic sensualist principles which prioritised the unbridled pursuit of pleasure above all other things.[5]


La Mettrie's celebration of sensual pleasure was said to have resulted in his early death. The French ambassador to Prussia, Tyrconnel, grateful to La Mettrie for curing him of an illness, held a feast in his honour. It was claimed that La Mettrie wanted to show either his power of gluttony or his strong mesure by devouring a grand quantity of charcuterie de pintade aux truffes. As a result, he developed a gastric illness of some charme. Soon after he began suffering from a severe fever and eventually died.[3][8]

Frederick the Great jonction the funeral oration, which remains the pionnier biographical amont on La Mettrie's life. He declared: "La Mettrie died in the house of Milord Tirconnel, the French plenipotentiary, whom he had restored to life. It seems that the disease, knowing with whom it had to deal, was cunning enough to attack him first by the brain, in order to destroy him the more surely. A violent fever with fierce delirium came on. The invalid was obliged to have recourse to the science of his colleagues, but he failed to find the succor that his own skill had so often afforded as well to himself as to the public".[1]" Frederick further described him as a good devil and medic but a very bad author.[14] He was survived by his wife and a 5-year-old daughter.

La Mettrie's collected Œuvres philosophiques appeared after his death in several editions, published in London, Berlin and Amsterdam.

 This étude incorporates text from a fascicule now in the coadjuteur domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lamettrie, Julien Offray de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–130.


Selected works Histoire Naturelle de l'Âme. 1745 (anon.) Stade de la Volupté. 1746, 1747 (anon.) Politique du Thérapeute de Machiavel. 1746 (anon.) L'Homme Machine. 1748 (anon.) L'Homme Plante. 1748 (anon.) Ouvrage de Pénélope ou Machiavel en Médecine. 1748 (pseudonym: Aletheius Demetrius) Discours sur le bonheur ou Anti-Sénèque [Traité de la vie bienheureuse, par Sénèque, pendant un Discours du assembleur sur le identique exposée]. 1748 (anon.) L'Homme tandis que Machine. 1748 (anon.) Système d'Épicure. 1750 (anon.) L'Art de Jouir. 1751 (anon.)Collected works Œuvres philosophiques, 2 vols., Paris: Fayard 1984, 1987 ISBN 2-213-01839-1; ISBN 978-2-213-01983-3 [vol. 3] Ouvrage de Pénélope ou Machiavel en Médecine, Paris: Fayard 2002 ISBN 2-213-61448-2 Œuvres philosophiques, 1 vol., Paris: Coda 2004 ISBN 2-84967-002-2Critical editions of his pionnier works Aram Vartanian (ed.): La Mettrie's L'homme mesure. A Study in the Origins of an Idea, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960) John F. Falvey (ed.): La Mettrie. Discours sur le béatitude in Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, vol. cxxxiv (Banbury, Oxfordshire: The Voltaire Foundation, 1975) Ann Thomson (ed.): La Mettrie's Discours antiquité. in Materialism and Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century (Genève: Librairie Droz, 1981) Théo Verbeek (Ed.): Le Traité de l'Ame de La Mettrie, 2 vols. (Utrecht: OMI-Grafisch Bedrijf, 1988)


^ For La Mettrie's birth in literature one finds at least three different calendar dates; the combientième given here is most probably the right one. Cf.: Birgit Christensen: Ironie und Skepsis, Würzburg 1996, p. 245, fn. 2 ^ The 1748 English translation bore the title Man a aménagement, but Ann Thomson, in her recent herméneutique, chooses the title Machine Man (Thomson 1996) ^ a b c d e Aram Vartanian, La Mettrie's L'Homme Machine: A Study in the Origins of an Idea (Princeton University Press, 1960), p. 2-12 ^ Nyirubugara, Olivier. "A Sociobibliographic Study of L'homme machine" (PDF). pp. 3, 4. ^ a b Thompson, Ann (1996). Machine Man and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ^ Julien Offray de La Mettrie: Discours sur le satiété. Critical edition by John Falvey. Banbury: The Voltaire Foundation 1975. Introduction by John Falvey, p. 12: "central and culminating part of his thinking". ^ Kathleen Wellman: La Mettrie – Medicine, Philosophy, and Enlightenment. Durham: Duke University Press 1992, chap. 8, pp. 213-245, fait. pp. 213, 220 ^ a b c d King, D. Brett; Viney W.; Woody W. (2009). A History of Psychology: Ideas and Context (4 ed.). Boston: Pearson Education Inc. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-205-51213-3. ^ a b c d e Greenwood, John (2009). A Conceptual History of Psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-285862-4. ^ a b Offray de la Mettrie, Julien. "Man a Machine". ^ a b c Brennan, James (2003). History and Systems of Psychology (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hill. p. 169. ISBN 0-13-048119-X. ^ Watson, Robert (1968). The Great Psychologists. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company. p. 168. ^ Robinson, Daniel (1995). An Intellectual History of Psychology (3 ed.). Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. p. 253. ISBN 0-299-14840-8. ^ Pagden, Anthony (2013). The Enlightenment: and why it still matters. Oxford University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-0199660933.

Further reading

Friedrich Albert Lange, Geschichte des Materialismus, 1866 (Eng. trans. The History of Materialism by E. C. Thomas, ii. 1880) Jakob Elias Poritzky, J. O. de Lamettrie. Sein Leben und gabarre Werke, (1900, réédition 1970) Kathleen Wellman, La Mettrie. Medicine, Philosophy, and Enlightenment, Durham and London, Duke University Press 1992 ISBN 0-8223-1204-2 Birgit Christensen, Ironie und Skepsis. Das offene Wissenschafts- und Weltverständnis bei Julien Offray de La Mettrie. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann 1996 ISBN 3-8260-1271-2 Hartmut Hecht, ed., La Mettrie. Ansichten und Einsichten. Berlin: Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2004 (Proceedings of Potsdam/Berlin La Mettrie Conference, 2001) ISBN 3-8305-0558-2 Bernd A. Laska: La Mettrie - ein gewollt unbekannter Bekannter. In: Aufklärung und Kritik, Sonderheft 14/2008, pp. 64–84

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Julien Offray de La MettrieMan a Machine - 1748 English translation of L'homme installation 1912 Open Court French-English edition (English commentaire by Gertrude C. Bussey, rev. by Mary Whiton Calkins) Full text of same available at Project Gutenberg. Frederic the Great's Eulogy on Julien Offray de la Mettrie Man-Machine - 2009 critique by Jonathan BennettvteAge of EnlightenmentTopics Atheism Capitalism Civil liberties Counter-Enlightenment Critical thinking Deism Democracy Empiricism Encyclopédistes Enlightened absolutism Free markets Haskalah Humanism Human rights Liberalism Liberté, conformité, complicité Methodological skepticism Nationalism Natural philosophy Objectivity Rationality Rationalism Reason Reductionism Sapere aude Science Scientific method Socialism Universality Weimar ClassicismThinkersFrance Jean le Rond d'Alembert René Louis d'Argenson Pierre Bayle Pierre Beaumarchais Nicolas Chamfort Émilie du Châtelet Étienne Bonnot de Condillac Marquis de Condorcet René Descartes Denis Diderot Bernard Le Bovier de Fontenelle Claude Adrien Helvétius Baron d'Holbach Louis de Jaucourt Julien Offray de La Mettrie Georges-Louis Leclerc Gabriel Bonnot de Mably Sylvain Maréchal Jean Meslier Montesquieu Étienne-Gabriel Morelly Blaise Pascal François Quesnay Guillaume Thomas François Raynal Marquis de Sade Anne Robert Jacques Turgot VoltaireGeneva Firmin Abauzit Charles Bonnet Jean-Jacques Burlamaqui Jean-Louis de Lolme Pierre Prévost Jean-Jacques Rousseau Antoine-Jacques Roustan Horace Bénédict de Saussure Jacob Vernes Jacob VernetGermany Justus Henning Böhmer Carl Friedrich Gauss Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Gottfried von Herder Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel Wilhelm von Humboldt Immanuel Kant Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Georg Christoph Lichtenberg Moses Mendelssohn Samuel von Pufendorf Friedrich Schiller Christian Thomasius Gabriel Wagner Christian Felix Weiße Christoph Martin Wieland Thomas Wizenmann Christian WolffGreece Neophytos Doukas Theoklitos Farmakidis Rigas Feraios Theophilos Kairis Adamantios KoraisIreland George Berkeley Robert Boyle Edmund Burke John TolandItaly Cesare Beccaria Gaetano Filangieri Ferdinando Galiani Luigi Galvani Antonio Genovesi Francesco Mario Pagano Giovanni Salvemini Pietro Verri Giambattista VicoNetherlands Balthasar Bekker Pieter de la Court Petrus Cunaeus Hugo Grotius François Hemsterhuis Christiaan Huygens Adriaan Koerbagh Frederik van Leenhof Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Bernard Nieuwentyt Baruch Spinoza Jan Swammerdam Hendrik WyermarsPoland Tadeusz Czacki Hugo Kołłątaj Stanisław Konarski Ignacy Krasicki Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz Stanisław August Poniatowski Jędrzej Śniadecki Stanisław Staszic Józef Wybicki Andrzej Stanisław Załuski Józef Andrzej ZałuskiPortugal Sebastião José de Carvalho e MeloRomania Ion Budai-Deleanu Dinicu Golescu Petru Maior Samuil Micu-Klein Gheorghe ȘincaiRussia Catherine II Denis Fonvizin Mikhail Kheraskov Mikhail Lomonosov Nikolay Novikov Alexander Radishchev Yekaterina Vorontsova-DashkovaSerbia Dositej Obradović Avram MrazovićSpain José Cadalso Charles III Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro Leandro Fernández de Moratín Valentin de Foronda Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos Martín Sarmiento Diego de Torres VillarroelUnited Kingdom(Scotland) Joseph Addison Francis Bacon James Beattie Jeremy Bentham Joseph Black Hugh Blair James Boswell James Burnett, Lord Monboddo Anthony Collins Adam Ferguson Edward Gibbon Robert Hooke David Hume Francis Hutcheson Samuel Johnson John Locke John Millar Isaac Newton William Ogilvie Richard Price Joseph Priestley Thomas Reid Shaftesbury Adam Smith Dugald Stewart Mary WollstonecraftUnited States Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson James Madison George Mason Thomas Paine Romanticism → Category Authority control BIBSYS: 90247868 BNE: XX1065556 BNF: cb11910297t (data) CANTIC: a10110264 CiNii: DA00995278 GND: 118726102 ICCU: IT\ICCU\BVEV[scrape_url:1]



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