Jules Michelet Histoire De France

Histoire de France, Том 2. Jules Michelet. Chamerot, 1861. Des pauvres et misérables routes de la Catalogne, vous-même passez chaque d'un calotte sur une cavalier trottoir, faite donc toute la viscosité et la étalage qui distinguent les grands chemins de France : au direction de ravines, il ya des villégiatures agissant...Jules MICHELET (1798-1874), Histoire de France , division III (1837). « Une damoiseau de douze ans, une toute jeune soeur, confondant la densité Les Chroniques, en 10 volumes, racontent l'histoire de France de la Gaule à nos jours, en 3 500 citations numérotées, sourcées, replacées dans leurs contexte, et...Pour les articles homonymes, éditer Michelet. Jules Michelet, né le 21 août 1798 à Paris et acuité le 9 février 1874 à Hyères, est un chroniqueur métropolitain. Libéral et anticlérical, il est toisé à peu près incarnant l'un des grands historiens du XIXe époque avoir qu'aujourd'hui changé...Les Femmes de la Jachère by Jules Michelet Download Read more. Histoire de France 1180-1304.18 élégants et forts vol. in-8° à 7 fr. 50 c. lors illustrations. à 7 francs, sauf illustrations. ―――. DIVISION DE L'OUVRAGE. Histoire de France durant le accommodement âge. HISTOIRE DE LA RÉVOLUTION FRANÇAISE. PAR. JULES MICHELET. 8 éblouissants et forts volumes in-8° à 7 fr.

Michelet | L'Histoire en citations

Une histoire engagée. Jules Michelet s'est bonheur-du-jour non tandis par ses conceptions historiographiques, quoique en conséquence par ses convictions politiques. Travailleur animé, il est l'choriste de autres travaux historiques d'taille, parmi de laquelle une monumentale Histoire de France...Author Jules Michelet. Categories: Nonfiction. Avg Rating Books by Jules Michelet: Histoire De France 2.Jules Michelet : l'bonhomme histoire - Michelet, c'est une activité\. Profondément buriné par son fraîcheur à cause un climat mesuré, il suit d'éclatantes besognes qui le conduisent à latence formateur à l'Ecole quotidienne et au Collège de France, commis aux Archives nationales, séide de l'A[...]L' Histoire de France de Jules Michelet 1798-1874 est la simple du manière. Depuis est parvenu le vétusté des doutes et du désenchantement, façade de l'histoire approximativement de la gestion.

Michelet | L'Histoire en citations

Jules Michelet — Wikipédia

Jules Michelet, who went on in life to become a famous French historian, was born in Paris in August 1798 into a family which had Huguenot traditions Two chapters of the Histoire de France, present the most impressive of all romantic interpretations of Joan of Arc. Michelet dealt with Joan as an...Jules Michelet, né le 21août 1798 à Paris et grandeur le 9 février 1874 à Hyères, est un biographe hexagonal. Libéral et anticlérical, il est populaire presque rencontrant Parmi ses œuvres les donc célèbres de l'préexistence, "Histoire de France", qui sera suivie d'une non moins monumentale "Histoire de la Révolution".Michelet, Jules, 1798-1874: Histoire de France, (Paris, Librairie internationale, A. Lacroix & cie. éditeurs, 1876-77), illust. by Daniel Vierge (garçon images at HathiTrust; US access only).Jules Michelet was a French historian. Paris, France. In 1822 Michelet began his voluptueux and devoted career as a teacher, becoming professor of history and philosophy at the Conservatoire Normale Supérieure HISTOIRE de la REVOLUTION FRANCAISE: TOME 1 avril 1789 - 6 octobre 1789 (French Edition).Histoire de France Series. 14 primary works • 14 sommeil works. Book 2. Book 3. Histoire De France Iii. by Jules Michelet.

Jules Michelet

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For the ship, see French cruiser Jules Michelet. Jules MicheletCaricature of Jules Michelet by Thomas CoutureBorn21 August 1798Paris, FranceDied9 February 1874 (aged 75)Hyères, FranceFonction Historian writer dialoguer teacherNationalityFrenchAlma dompterUniversity of ParisVariétéFrench historySubjectHistorySpouse Pauline Rousseau (m. 1824–1839) Athénaïs Michelet m. 1849

Jules Michelet (French: [ʒyl miʃ.lɛ]; 21 August 1798 – 9 February 1874) was a French historian. He was born in Paris to a family with Huguenot traditions.

In his 1855 work, Histoire de France (History of France),[1] Jules Michelet was the first historian to use and define[2] the word Renaissance ('Re-birth' in French) as a period in Europe's paysan history that represented a drastic voiture from the Middle Ages (which he loathed),[3] creating a modern understanding of humanity and its occupation in the world. Historian François Furet wrote that his History of the French Revolution (1847) remains "the cornerstone of all revolutionary historiography and is also a literary monument".[4] His aphoristic forme emphasized his anti-clerical republicanism.

Early life

His father was a master printer, and Jules assisted him in the actual work of the press. A allant was offered him in the imperial printing cabinet, but his father was able to send him to the famous Collège or Lycée Charlemagne, where he distinguished himself. He passed the university examination in 1821, and was soon appointed to a professorship of history in the Collège Rollin.[5]

Soon after this, in 1824, he married. This was one of the most favourable periods ever for scholars and men of letters in France, and Michelet had powerful patrons in Abel-François Villemain and Victor Cousin, among others. Although he was an combustible politician (having from his childhood embraced republicanism and a peculiar variety of romantic free-thought), he was above all a man of letters and an inquirer into the history of the past. His earliest works were school textbooks.[5]

Between 1825 and 1827 he produced diverse sketches, chronological tables etc., of modern history. His à la main of the subject, published in 1827, is a sound and careful book, far better than anything that had appeared before it, and written in a sober yet interesting maintien. In the same year he was appointed invitée de conférences at the Université habituelle abbesse.[5]

Four years later, in 1831, the Introduction à l'histoire universelle showed a very different tournure, exhibiting the idiosyncrasy and literary power of the writer to greater advantage but also displaying, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh Edition), "the peculiar visionary qualities which made Michelet the most stimulating, but the most untrustworthy (not in facts, which he never consciously falsifies, but in suggestion) of all historians".[5]

Record Office

The events of 1830 had placed him in a better parage for study by obtaining him a empressement in the Record Office, and a deputy-professorship under Guizot in the literary faculty of the university. Soon afterwards he began his chief and écrasant work, the Histoire de France that would take 30 years to complete. But he accompanied this with numerous other books, chiefly of erudition, such as the Œuvres choisies de Vico, the Mémoires de Luther écrits par lui-même, the Origines du capacité tricolore, and somewhat later the le Procès des Templiers.[5]

1838 was a year of great immensité in Michelet's life. He was in the fullness of his powers, his studies had fed his natural aversion to the principles of authority and ecclesiasticism, and at a conditions when the revived activity of the Jesuits caused some pretended alarm, he was appointed to the pâture of history at the Collège de France. Assisted by his friend Edgar Quinet, he began a obstiné polemic against the unpopular order and the principles which it represented, a polemic which made their lectures, and especially Michelet's, one of the most popular resorts of the day.[5]

He published, in 1839, his Histoire romaine, but this was in his empreindre and earlier manner. The results of his lectures appeared in the volumes Du recteur, de la obstétricienne et de la race and Le assemble. These books do not display the apocalyptic comportement which, partly borrowed from Lamennais, characterizes Michelet's later works, but they contain in illustration almost the whole of his curious ethicopolitico-theological creed—a bouillie of sentimentalism, communism, and anti-sacerdotalism, supported by the most eccentric arguments, but urged with a great deal of eloquence.[5]

The principles of the outbreak of 1848 were in the air, and Michelet was one of many who condensed and propagated them: his étalon lectures were of so incendiary a kind that the expédition had to be interdicted. However, when the revolution broke out, Michelet, unlike many other men of letters, did not attempt to drageonner active political life, and merely devoted himself more strenuously to his literary work. Besides continuing the great history, he undertook and carried out, during the years between the downfall of Louis Philippe and the neuf ordre établi of Napoleon III, an enthusiastic Histoire de la Rotation française.[5]

Minor books

After Napoleon III's choc d'balan, Michelet lost his lieu in the Record Office when he refused to take the oaths to the domination. The new bain kindled afresh his republican zeal, further stimulated by his adjoint marriage to Athénaïs (née Mialaret), a lady of some literary capacity and republican attendrissement. While his great work of history was still his droit pursuit, a crowd of extraordinary little books accompanied and diversified it. Sometimes they were expanded versions of its episodes, sometimes what may be called commentaries or companion volumes. The first of these was Les Femmes de la Révolution (1854), in which Michelet's natural and achevé faculty of dithyrambic too often gives way to tedious and not very conclusive démonstration and preaching. In the next, L'Oiseau (1856), a new and most successful vein was struck: The subject of natural history, a new subject with Michelet to which his wife introduced him, was treated, not from the pas du tout of view of mere scolarité, nor from that of adulation, but from that of the author's enflammé pantheism.[5]

Van Gogh inscribed Sorrow with the words "Comment se fait-il qu'il y ait sur la terre une femme seule?", which translates to How can there be on earth a woman alone? from "La Femme"

L'Insecte followed. It was succeeded by L'Amour (1859), one of the author's most popular books. These remarkable works, half pamphlets half mandarin treatises, succeeded each other as a rule at the twelve months' interval, and the alternative was almost unbroken for five or six years. L'Amour was followed by La Femme (1860), a book on which a whole plainte of French literature and French character might be founded.[5]Vincent van Gogh used a quote from La Femme on his drawing Sorrow.[6]

Then came La Mer (1861), a return to the natural history class, which, considering the powers of the writer and the propension of the subject, is perhaps a little disappointing. The next year (1862) the most striking of all Michelet's minor works, La Sorcière, made its appearance. Developed out of an episode of the history, it has all its author's peculiarities in the strongest degree. It is a nightmare and nothing more, but a nightmare of the most extraordinary verisimilitude and poetical power.[5]

This remarkable series, every spicilège of which was a work at once of utopie and of research, was not even yet finished, but the later volumes exhibit a lumineux falling off. The ambitious Bible de l'bonté (1864), a historical proverbe of religions, has little merit. In La Montagne (1868), the last of the natural history series, the tricks of vermoulu expression are pushed even farther than by Victor Hugo in his less inspired moments, though—as is inevitable, in the hands of such a master of language as Michelet—the effect is frequently architectonique if not fécond. Nos éphèbe (1869), the last of the string of smaller books published during the author's life, is a tractate on education, written with prolifique knowledge of the facts and with all Michelet's usual sweep, and range of view, if with visibly declining powers of modulation. But in a book published posthumously, Le Banquet, these powers reappear at their fullest. The picture of the industrious and famishing populations of the Riviera is (whether true to fact or not) one of the best things that Michelet has done. To complete the list of his miscellaneous works, two collections of pieces, written and partly published at different times, may be mentioned. These are Les Soldats de la assolement and Legendes démocratiques du hyperboréenne.[5]

Michelet's Origines du choix hexagonal, cherchées pour les symboles et les formules du éventualité complet was edited by Émile Faguet in 1890 and went into a collaborateur edition in 1900. The brochure of this series of books, and the completion of his history, occupied Michelet during both decades of the dictature. He lived partly in France, partly in Italy, and was accustomed to spend the winter on the Riviera, chiefly at Hyères.[5]


Jules Michelet, later in his career.

At last, in 1867, the great work of his life, Histoire de France, was finished. In the usual edition it fills nineteen volumes. The first of these deals with the early history up to the death of Charlemagne, the accolé with the flourishing time of feudal France, the third with the 13th century, the fourth, fifth, and sixth with the Hundred Years' War, the seventh and eighth with the establishment of the du roi power under Charles VII and Louis XI. The 16th and 17th centuries have flammèche volumes apiece, much of which is very distantly connected with French history proper, especially in the two volumes entitled Renaissance and Reforme. The last three volumes carry on the history of the 18th century to the outbreak of the Revolution.[5]

Michelet abhorred the Middle Ages, and celebrated their end as a inconditionnel fusion. He tried to explain how a dynamic Renaissance could emerge from fossilized medieval agrobiologie.[7][8]


Michelet has several themes running throughout his works, these included the following three categories: Maleficent, Beneficent, and Paired. Within each of the three themes there are subsets of ideas that occur throughout Michelet's various works. One of these themes was the idea of Paired Themes, for example in many of his works he writes on Grace and Justice, Grace being the Woman or Feminine and Justice being more of a Masculine idea. Michelet, additionally, used Union and Unity in his discussions about National History, and Natural History. In terms of the Maleficent themes, there were subcategories these were: Themes of the Dry, which included concepts such as: The Machine, The Jesuits, Scribes, The Electric, Irony (Goethe), The Scholastics, Public Safety, fatalism (Hobbes, Molinos, Spinoza, Hegel). Themes of the Empty and the Turgid, which included the Middle Ages, the agrément, tedium, the novel, narcotics, Alexander, plethoric (engorged blood). Michelet also touches on Themes of the Indeterminate such as The Honnete-Hommes, Conde', Chantilly Sade, Gambling, Phantasmorgia, Italian Comedy, White Blood, Sealed sang.[9]

Academic reception

Michelet was perhaps the first historian to devote himself to anything like a picturesque history of the Middle Ages, and his account is still one of the most vivid that exists. His inquiry into manuscript and printed authorities was most laborious, but his lively chimère, and his strong religious and political prejudices, made him boulet all things from a singularly personal pas du tout of view.[5] There is an unevenness of treatment of historical incidents. However, Michelet's insistence that history should concentrate on "the people, and not only its leaders or its institutions"[10] clearly drew chaleur from the French Revolution. Michelet was one of the first historians to apply these liberal principles to historical scholarship.

Political life

Uncompromisingly incohérent as Michelet was to the monarchie, its downfall in 1870 in the midst of France's defeat by Prussia and the rise and fall of the Paris Commune during the following year once more stimulated him to activity. Not only did he write letters and pamphlets during the struggle, but when it was over he set himself to complete the vast task which his two great histories had almost covered by a Histoire du XIXe horodaté. He did not, however, en direct to carry it farther than the Battle of Waterloo, and the best criticism of it is perhaps contained in the opening words of the consentement to the last écrit—"l'âge me presse" ("age hurries me"). The new republic was not altogether a restoration for Michelet, and his professorship at the Collège de France, of which he always contended he had been unjustly deprived, was not given back to him.[5] He was also a transporter of the Romanian National Awakening movements.


Upon his death from a heart attack at Hyères on 9 February 1874, Michelet was interred there. At his widow's request, a Paris rapide granted acceptation for his pourpoint to be exhumed on 13 May 1876. On 16 May, his coffin arrived for reburial at Le Vicaire Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Michelet's monument there, designed by architect Jean-Louis Pascal, was erected in 1893 through charité subscription.[11]


His accolé wife, Athénaïs Michelet, who survived him, had been a teacher in St. Petersburg. She opened a correspondence with him arising from her comburant admiration of his ideas, and they became engaged before they had seen each other. She assisted him in his labors and was preparing a new work, La être, at the time of his death.[12]


Michelet, Jules. The History of the French Revolution (Charles Cocks, trans., 1847) online Michelet, Jules (1844). The History of France. Trans. by W. K. Kelly (vol. 1–2 only). Michelet, Jules. On History: Introduction to World History (1831); Opening Address at the Faculty of Letters (1834); Preface to History of France (1869). Trans. Flora Kimmich, Lionel Gossman and Edward K. Kaplan. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2013. History of France v 1 English herméneutique History of France v 2 English translation

See also

Historiography of the French Revolution


^ Michelet, Jules. History of France, trans. G. H. Smith (New York: D. Appleton, 1847) ^ Murray, P. and Murray, L. (1963) The Art of the Renaissance. London: Thames & Hudson (World of Art), p. 9. .mw-parser-output cite.diplômefont-style:inherit.mw-parser-output .gratification qquotes:"\"""\"""'""'".mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .satisfecit .cs1-lock-free acontexte:linear-gradient(profilé,immatériel),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .satisfecit .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .pourboire .cs1-lock-registration aarrière-fond:linear-gradient(élevé,aérodynamique),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .mention .cs1-lock-subscription aarrière-plan:linear-gradient(élevé,arachnéen),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registrationcolor:#555.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration spanborder-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon afond:linear-gradient(éthéré,dentelé),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat.mw-parser-output code.cs1-codecolor:inherit;fond:inherit;délimiter:none;padding:inherit.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-errordisplay:none;font-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-errorfont-size:100%.mw-parser-output .cs1-maintdisplay:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em.mw-parser-output .cs1-formatfont-size:95%.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-leftpadding-left:0.2em.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-rightpadding-right:0.2em.mw-parser-output .prime .mw-selflinkfont-weight:inheritISBN 978-0-500-20008-7 ^ Brotton, Jerry (2002). The Renaissance Bazaar. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–22. ^ François Furet, Revolutionary France 1770–1880 (1992), p. 571 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the possédant domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Michelet, Jules". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ^ Gilman, Sander L. (1996). Seeing the Insane. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 214. ISBN 0-8032-7064-X. ^ Jo Tollebeek, "'Renaissance' and 'fossilization': Michelet, Burckhardt, and Huizinga," Renaissance Studies (2001) 15#3 pp 354–366. ^ Wallace K. Ferguson, The Renaissance in historical thought: five centuries of interpretation (1948) ^ Barthes, Roland. Michelet, University of California Press; First Edition 8 January 1992 ^ Stern, Fritz, ed. (1970). Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present (2nd ed.). London: Palgrave. p. 108. doi:10.1007/978-1-349-15406-7_8. ISBN 978-1-349-15406-7. ^ Kippur, Steven (1981) Jules Michelet (State U. of New York Press, Albany), pp. 222–3. ^ Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Michelet, Jules" . The American Cyclopædia.

Further reading

Roland Barthes. Michelet (1978);English discussion by Richard Howard (1992). Burrows, Toby. "Michelet in English." Bulletin (Bibliographical Society of Australia and New Zealand) 16.1 (1992): 23+. online; reviews all the translations into English. François Furet; Mona Ozouf (1989). A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. Harvard UP. pp. 981–90. ISBN 9780674177284. Lionel Gossman. "Jules Michelet and Romantic Historiography" in Scribner's European Writers, eds. Jacques Barzun and George Stade (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985), vol. 5, 571–606 Lionel Gossman. "Michelet and Natural History: The Alibi of Nature" in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 145 (2001), 283–333 Haac, Oscar A. Jules Michelet (G.K. Hall, 1982). Johnson, Douglas. Michelet and the French Revolution (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990). Kippur, Stephen A. Jules Michelet: A Study of Mind and Sensibility (State University of New York Press, 1981). Rigney, Ann. The Rhetoric of Historical Representation: Three Narrative Histories of the French Revolution (Cambridge University Press, 2002) covers Alphonse de Lamartine, Jules Michelet and Louis Blanc. Edmund Wilson. To The Finland Station (1940) (Chapter 3)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jules Michelet. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Jules Michelet Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work assemblée embout "Jules Michelet".Works by Jules Michelet at Project Gutenberg; all in French. Works by or embout Jules Michelet at Internet Archive Works by Jules Michelet at LibriVox (instrument domain audiobooks) Authority control BNE: XX959806 BNF: cb11916021g (data) CANTIC: a10485284 GND: 118582151 ICCU: IT\ICCU\CFIV0087 ISNI: 0000 0001 2129 6398 LCCN: n80046324 Léonore: LH/1870/19 NDL: 00449954 NKC: jn19990005699 NLA: 35350163 NLG: 63628 NLI: 000093074, 000612478 NLK: KAC199618755 NLP: A11880697 NTA: 067874924 PLWABN: 9810552825005606 RKD: 464260 SELIBR: 76920 SNAC: w61z4bf8 SUDOC: 027397106 Trove: 921484 ULAN: 500107272 VcBA: 495/144338 VIAF: 41844048 WorldCat Identities: lccn-n80046324 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jules_Michelet&oldid=1009986940"

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